Braille is a tactile reading and writing system designed forblind People. It is also known as Cecografía.
It was devisedby the
Frenchman Louis Braille in the mid-nineteenthcentury, who was blind because of an accident during hischildhood while playing in his father’s
workshop. When hewas
13 years old, the director of the School of Blind and Deafin Paris – where he studied the young Braille – asked him totest a system of
tactile reading-writing invented by a militaryman named Charles Barbier de la Serre to transmit orders toadvanced positions
Without having to give away
the positionduring the Nights. Louis Braille discovered after a time thatthe system was valid and reinvented
it using an 8-pointsystem. After a few years, simplified left him in theuniversally known and adopted 6-point System.
Maquina Writer de escritura
The Braille alphabet
Since 1825, when Louis Braille devised his point-in-reliefsystem, blind people have had a valid and effective tool toread, write, compose or dedicate themselves to computing.
The Braille system is not a language, but an alphabet. Withbraille, letters, punctuation, numbers, scientific graphs,mathematical symbols, music, etc
. can be represented.Braille tends to consist of six-point cells in relief, organizedas a three-row matrix by two columns, which areconventionally numbered from top to bottom and from leftto Right.
The presence or absence of points allows the coding of theSymbols. These six points are obtained by 64 differentcombinations. The presence or
absence of point in eachposition determines what letter it is. Since these 64combinations are clearly insufficient, special differentiatingsigns are
used which, Antepuestos to a combination ofpoints, convert a capital letter, italics, number or musicalNote. In Spanish braille, lowercase letter
codes, Mostpunctuation marks, some special characters, and somewords are coded directly with a cell, but uppercase andnumbers are also
represented with another symbol such asPrefix.
Use of machines for Braille
There are signografías Braille to represent shorthand(generated with a machine that marks the dots on a papertape) and to represent
mathematical notations, also calledUnified mathematical code, and Musical.
With the introduction of computer science, Braille wasextended to an eight-point code, so that an individual lettercan be encoded with a single cell, being able to represent acell not oivideojuego any ASCII character.
The 256 possiblecombinations of the eight points are coded according to theUnicode Standard.
The introduction of access to information technologies hasgenerated a need to establish new signografías onInformatics and electronics
published by the CBE in January2009. Braille can be reproduced using an iron and a punch,so that each point is generated from the back
of the page,written in a reverse image (like the one you get when lookingthrough a mirror), handmade or printed with a Brailletypewriter , a
Braille printer connected to a computer, or abraille device.
Perkins Braille Typewriter